Building Self Efficacy in First-Year Students

Jade PerryJade Perry, Coordinator in the Office of Multicultural Student Success at DePaul University
Twitter: @SAJadePerry1
LinkedIn: www.linkedin.com/pub/jade-perry/21/667/b25/
Website: jadetarynperry.wordpress.com

One of the aspects I love about my job is working with first-year students on career planning and professionalism, through a grant program at DePaul University. While our team works on career skills such as resume writing, cover letter formation, networking, and more… I also ensure that we have an early conversation about self-efficacy.

Self-efficacy is a theme that our entire office incorporates into our learning outcomes, programs, and initiatives. However, there is a specific reason why this is particularly salient for first-year students. Bandura (1993), the seminal scholar associated with this theory, asserts that “Effective intellectual functioning requires much more than simply understanding the factual knowledge and reasoning operations for given activities.” So what does that mean for my first-year students? It means that while they can glean factual knowledge from the career skill workshops, assessments, and advising we provide, they also need to build a sense of self-efficacy for these things to have a strong impact.

Self-efficacy includes “people’s beliefs about their ability to exercise control over their own level of functioning and over events that affect their lives.” The career exploration process is one such event / process that affects their lives, and as educators, we are asking them to engage. We are prompting them to create professional documents, build networking skills, attend career counseling appointments to talk about strengths, interests, skills, and more. But self-efficacy determines whether or not they believe they can engage in the ways we know they need to.

Our students will not engage with career planning in their college tenure, if they do not have a strong belief that they are capable of engaging with it… and that this engagement will reap benefits. So, opportunities that will build this belief in students should happen on four levels, according to Bandura’s work: a) performance outcomes, b) physiological feedback, c) verbal persuasion, and d) vicarious experiences. Here are some examples specific to professionals working with students on career planning/skill building:

  • Performance outcomes: Within the cohort of first-year students, each student is asked to complete career-related tasks such as scheduling and conducting an informational interview, crafting professional correspondence and going to have documents reviewed, and visiting a career fair. Then, we ask them to reflect on the experience both verbally (discussions within their cohort) and through written work, so that they can assess their performance outcomes… with particular attention to what they did well and what areas they’d like to grow in, for future career exploration. Breaking our career counseling / supervisory appointments to focus on specific tasks associated with the career discernment process, might enable us to have conversations about what happened / how students are feeling about what they were able to accomplish, in a safe space.
  • Physiological feedback: Have you ever worked with a student to chart out career goal-setting, and you can see their eyes get wide, palms getting a bit sweaty, and other signs of physiological feedback? As educators and counselors, asking questions in one-on-one settings about how career exploration tasks make students feel on an emotional and physiological level can be a helpful tool to mitigate some of these effects.
  • Verbal persuasion: Sometimes, our students just need a pep talk. They have the information. They know what needs to be done. But some encouragement from us can also influences their beliefs about their own capabilities! Many times, these conversations stem from our students perceiving that they have “failed” at something: e.g., they didn’t get to the career center on time; they felt too nervous to talk with a recruiter. Re-framing these conversations to say, “It sounds like that must have been a rough experience. But you are capable of engaging with the process! How can we brainstorm a plan B together?” might make a huge difference in self-efficacy beliefs.
  • Vicarious experiences: Peer mentors, alumni, and / or professionals in students’ fields of interest are invaluable in providing some of these vicarious experiences. As we build self-efficacy for students, these voices allow them to “see themselves” or receive more information about ways they can engage with the career exploration process through hearing the experiences of others!

Self-efficacy building strategies for first-year students incorporates opportunities for them to listen, learn, go, explore, and implement!

When students come to us, there may be some who are not exactly ready to “go, explore, and implement.” First-year students are transitioning into their collegiate journey and may not feel that they have enough to offer a professional workplace yet. As educators, we want to ensure that they emerge saying: “I can do this!” after engaging in the educational outcomes we have planned for them.  So, having early conversations with students about self-efficacy also allows a point of reference for when students are not “exercise(ing) control over their own level of functioning and over events that affect their lives.”  If we have explained the concept, we can then have intentional conversations to discern: Do they believe that their individual engagement with career exploration is something that they can control (i.e. setting up and attending career advising appointments, attending workshops, taking professional development opportunities)? Or are they primarily waiting for university staff to externally? Do they quit on a project requirement when they face difficulties (“this is out of my control”) or do they seek out help when faced with difficulties (“help-seeking is within my control, and I am capable of that”)? This helps us to understand some of the barriers our students might be facing, and informs how we advise them.

Overall, coaching students through their career exploration with a self-efficacy lens allows students to connect a) what they know, b) how they feel about what they know, c) level of motivation, and d) output of career goals. Setting this foundation in the first year of student’s collegiate journey allows them to have a sense of empowerment as they move through other academic years, make post-college success plans, and apply for jobs!

Resources

Bandura, A. (1982). Self-efficacy mechanism in human agency. American psychologist, 37(2), 122.

Bandura, A. (1993). Perceived self-efficacy in cognitive development and functioning. Educational psychologist, 28(2), 117-148.

 

Helping Students Find “a Good Fit”

dawn shawDawn Shaw, career consultant, MPA Career Services, McCombs School of Business, The University of Texas at Austin
LinkedIn: www.linkedin.com/in/dawnshaw
Twitter: @Dawn_R_Shaw
Blog: http://dawnreneshaw.wordpress.com/

I had a student come in the other day and ask me “What is a good fit anyway?”  I thought, that is a good question. Many times living and breathing in career services, I take for granted what this means. Especially to a student who has recently been unsuccessful in the job search. So, how do you know if you’re a good fit for a company or if the company is a good fit for you? Here are a couple of ideas I shared with this student:

  • Culture: Think back to all the encounters you have had with a potential employer. Think about the e-mail correspondence. Think about how you felt at the interview; not how you did, not how your performance was evaluated. Also think about how everyone else was acting during the social events.  Did you like the recruiters’ responses?  Did you feel uncomfortable?  If you judged them on their performance, what grade would they get?  Also, keep in mind that office visits can give you further information if the company is a good fit or not; so we encourage you to go to office visits to help you decide.
  • Priorities: Part of finding the ‘right fit’ is knowing your own priorities.  Often times I will ask students to create a priority list before the recruiting process even begins.  Many times when recruiting is in full speed, others’ opinions can influence in ways that were not anticipated.  Therefore, having a list of your priorities can help keep you focused.   So, write down what matters to you.  Flexible schedule?  Location?  Team Culture?  Open to Ideas?  Future Career Opportunities?  Rank them.  Match the ranking against what you think the job can offer you.  Also, be mindful of what you are doing now that affects your future career transitions.
  • Take an Inventory: A right attitude can be the first step in being part of the ‘good fit’.  Do you have a habit of talking about what irks you to whomever will listen?  If so, this could easily disrupt a team dynamic and distract from the work you do.  Consider what you can give before you judge what you get.
  • Ask Real Questions: You have an opportunity in office visits to get as much information as you can before having to make a decision. Do you care about the management style of your direct supervisor? Do you want to know how work is evaluated in the company? Ask!  Many times your authentic questions show your sincerity and real commitment to the potential employer.  And guess what?  That is what the employer looking for!

Perhaps this is refreshing and encouraging to motivate your students too!

(A student version of this article is available to NACE members from NACEweb’s Grab & Go section.)

 

Helping Students Navigate Familial Pressure

katie smith at duke university

Katie Smith, assistant director, Duke University Career Center,
LinkedIn: www.linkedin.com/in/ksmith258/
Twitter: @ksmith258

 

“The most important job of the adviser…is to help students understand themselves, to face and take responsibility for their decisions, and to support and to free them to make choices that are at odds with the expectations other have for them. Students look to mentors—figures ‘more attuned to their rising hopes’—to give them what their parents won’t or can’t: the permission to go their own way and the reassurance that their path is valid,” William Deresiewicz quotes Harvard faculty member Harry R. Lewis comments in his recent book, Excellent Sheep.

The quote is one that many career professionals can identify with, as we often pride ourselves in providing a safe space for students to explore and articulate their interests while helping them to identify a career to fitting to their skills, talents, and needs. If only it was that easy!

Most people who work with college students have encountered a student who is torn between what she wants and what her parents or family members want. This is an incredibly challenging situation for students, mentally and emotionally taxing, often without an easy solution.

As college tuition continues to rise, so does the discussion on ROI. Parents are, understandably, especially attuned to this issue. What will my child study, and what will he be able to do with that? Is it a competitive field? Can she get the “right” experience in classes or internships? How much money will he make?

In short, is it worth it?

For some students, there’s a lot at stake in academic and career decision making. This decision could compromise the financial support of their education, narrow options (particularly in the case of international students), or could injure, or even sever, a relationship between student and their parents or other family members. In many cases, it’s also a decision that could affect a student’s success in school, as well as their well-being throughout college and beyond.

In recent weeks, I’ve worked with a student who studied engineering due his parents’ refusal to assist with his tuition if he pursued another major. Additionally, another student passionate about education is receiving pressure to commit to a more lucrative field, as her family is depending on her for financial support. Both of these students are navigating a challenging path balancing familial pressures, both real and perceived, and their own goals and aspirations.

As counselors, coaches, advisers, and mentors, working with these students can be difficult. Generally, we encourage students to follow their interests, and to choose a field that they get excited about. However, when the field they want to choose doesn’t align with others’ expectations, we carefully venture into new territory. “Is it possible to find the best of both worlds?” We might find ourselves asking. Where do fields such as art history and medicine or computer science and philosophy converge? If the student recognizes that his family’s opinion has a major stake in his decision, is it possible for him to pursue both his interests, and theirs?

For some students, this compromise is a possibility, but for others, this may not be the case. As career professionals, it is our role to help students identify their priorities, and to find a path that maximizes opportunity and fit given the present constraints.

As Deresiewicz quotes an observant student commenting on her mother, “she wanted me to have everything instead of wanting me to have what I wanted.”

The question is, where is the line?

Data Collection Toward a 100 Percent Knowledge Rate

BlessVaiBless Vaidian, Director, Career Counseling for Pace Career Services – Westchester, and Founder, Career Transitions Guide
Linkedin: https://www.linkedin.com/in/blessvaidian
Twitter: https://twitter.com/BlessCareers
Blog: http://careertransitionsguide.com

Is a 100 percent knowledge rate possible with a first-destination survey? That’s to be determined each year and with each effort. Due-diligence requires universities to extend maximum effort to try to achieve a 100 percent knowledge rate for all our students. The task of collecting and reporting data is a huge undertaking trusted to many career offices. Whether you are trying to meet the NACE deadline for data collection or your own office deadline, creating a systematic approach and incorporating “best practices” into your labor makes capturing career outcomes more manageable.

Lay the Foundation

Its essential to be able to analyze data with ease, as well as know ahead of time what questions to include in your outreach attempts to students. Follow the suggestions outlined by NACE in your database fields and match it to your first destination surveys. Bring in your school’s technology department to help create the database, as well as the electronic surveys that capture the responses fed into it. Once that’s done, a time line for when, where, and how you will collect data can be drawn out. Cap and Gown surveys, employer surveys, surveys to the campus community, classroom visits, social media searches, follow-up student surveys, calls and e-mails have to be systematically laid out on a timeline. Learn assessment best practices by attending conferences and events to know how others are capturing information. Make sure you use the NACE links on the topic and talk to Ed Koc, NACE’s Director of Research, Public Policy, and Legislative Affairs or his great team if you have questions. Koc is offering a webinar on the first-destination initiative in early January for NACE members. A solid foundation and plan of action will serve you well in the long run.

Designate a Point Person

If the college community knows that career outcome information has to be sent to a designated individual within their school, then more outcomes can be captured. Often university staff members possess career outcome information and never pass it onto career services. The human resources and admissions departments within your school may have first-destination information on numerous students who were hired or went onto graduate school at your institution. The designated point person should monitor the first destination survey numbers, solicit information from university sources consistently, and create a strategy for follow-up with graduates. It takes many people, numerous efforts, and even call-centers to capture data for bigger schools. But designate an expert to manage the whole process, set the timeline, and be the “face” of the initiative in order to drive the results.

It’s Not a Career Services Issue, It’s a University Issue

Helping students find opportunities and creating a path for successful outcomes is not just a career services goal. Higher education is a partnership of many units working collaboratively to ensure retention and capture every student’s career outcome. Long before first-destination surveys go out, building relationships with the campus community is where data collection really starts for career services. Meetings with the university community to build bridges, foster relationships, and outline the process is crucial. Students share career outcome information with professors, academic advisers, financial aid representatives, leaders of student organizations, and college staff. These sources become vital in the collection process and have to be included in the journey.

Keep the Community Vested

It is essential to make survey efforts and progress visible to the campus community. Every dean, faculty member, and university staff  member should know what the career office does. Career outcome and knowledge rate information should be displayed in infographics, charts, and reports on a regular basis with college partners. If others understand what goes on behind the scenes and where the numbers are, then they will be more apt to assist with first-destination information. It also keeps departments interested and looking forward to the next update.

Mandate Attendance 

Universities that promote, encourage, or even mandate attendance at career service events and one-to-one meetings with a career counselor can create more successful outcomes. Students that have worked with career offices feel more comfortable sharing career outcomes, and should be told that post-graduate follow-up will take place after graduation. Career services also helps students find pre-professional experience through internships that build resumes and lead to full-time offers. They offer networking opportunities with employers and alumni that have job leads every semester. Increased student engagement with career centers increases the “knowledge rate,” and also increases “outcomes.” Its a simple formula.

Multiple out-reach efforts to capture information throughout the year are made to graduating seniors, college partners, and employers to track career outcomes. I would love to hear your school’s best practices and ideas to reach that “100 percent knowledge rate.” Wishing each of you success in reaching your university’s goal and capturing outcomes. 

Branding Is Key: An Insider’s Look at First-Destination Surveys

Katrina Zaremba

Katrina Zaremba, Communications Coordinator, University Career Center, University of Kansas
Twitter: @KatrinaZaremba
LinkedIn: www.linkedin.com/in/katrinazaremba
(Part 2 of 4 on early adoption of the NACE First-Destination Survey Standards.)

With the new NACE First-Destination Survey Standards and Protocols being released this year, I knew that a marketing campaign was in order for our survey. I wanted an image we could use to create a brand around our first-destination survey so people would associate it with the survey itself.

When it comes to branding, consistency is key.

The result was a single, vector-based image with a fun saying that we hoped would relate to students, “What in the world are you doing after graduation?” We used university-approved colors in a vibrant way that would hopefully catch the attention of the graduating senior class. We mixed bold and hand-drawn typefaces to add dimension as well.

What in the world are you doing after graduation? Let us know with this short survey!The campaign launched mid-May, and we used our website, social media platforms, and faculty as main modes of advertising our survey to graduating seniors. (Click on the image to enlarge.)

Our website has a great space for a rotating banner image at the top of our home page. This space is sure to grab the attention of anyone who visits our site. This image has had thousands of impressions and clicks leading directly to the survey.

For social media, Twitter and Facebook were the platforms we used for promotion. We were strategic in choosing certain hashtags that were relevant to our target audience (i.e., #KUGrads, #KUAlumni). We also tagged appropriate accounts to spread the word and inspire engagement such as shares and retweets (i.e., @KUCollege, @KUAlumni, @KUGrads).

Overall, we had over 5,000 impressions with an engagement rate of 2 percent for our social media outreach alone.

Insider Tip: You can pin posts to the top of your Twitter profile to make sure those who are visiting your Twitter profile see your most important message first.This will hopefully help with the number of impressions your tweet receives.

Pin this banner to your profile page.Our associate director met with faculty members in the College of Liberal Arts and Science to let them know we were conducting the first-destination survey, and also to ask them to promote it to their students. In return, we created individualized reports for each major in the college and shared those results with the departments. We will talk more about reports in part 3 of this series. (Click on the image to enlarge.)

I am constantly learning from this experience, so naturally there are some things we would like to do differently next year. Each spring, The University of Kansas has a Graduate Fair where students can purchase regalia, personalized graduation announcements, cap and gown portraits, and class rings. And each year, the University Career Center has a booth at this fair. Next spring we will capitalize on this and bring iPads for students to fill out the survey on the spot, and handouts with our branded image so they can access the survey later if they are short on time at that event.

We would also like to meet with faculty earlier in the semester, perhaps in March, to help us get the word out to students before graduation rolls around.

I’d love to hear how you are marketing your destination survey to students as well. Feel free to share your comments below!

Stay tuned in the coming months for the third installment of the first-destination standards and protocols series. My colleague, Vanessa Newton, and I have more to share!

(On Thursday, Bless Vaidian, director of Career Counseling for Pace Career Services – Westchester, will offer more tips on first-destination surveys.)

Career Exploration Infographic Activity

Ross WadeCareer Infographic – Ross Wade, assistant director, Duke University Career Center
Personal blog: http://mrrosswade.wordpress.com/
LinkedIn URL: https://www.linkedin.com/in/rosswade
Twitter: @rrwade
Blogs from Ross Wade.

As career advisers, assessment is an important part of our job—especially when it comes to helping students explore careers and themselves. As a visual person; adviser for students interested in media, arts, and entertainment; and infographic lover; I’ve been tinkering with ways to make assessment more fun and creative.

So I present to all of you….(drum roll please)…the career exploration infographic activity! I’m sure someone else has already thought of this, but the idea occurred to me recently, and I wanted to share with all of you.

The purpose of this activity is for students to assess and rank their values, interests, Career Infographic - Ross Wadestrengths, and identity (personal or professional) in a creative and graphic way. It could be facilitated during a one-on-one session or as a part of a program or workshop on self-exploration. I used PowerPoint to design my infographic (click on the image to make it larger), but anything could be used, including pencil and paper—the point is to get creative. If you decide to use images from the web, I suggest using Creative Commons to find images that can be legally used on the web and without attribution.

Steps:

  1. Have your student select a picture, symbol, or graphic that represents her/his identity. For example, I’ve worn big, black glasses for a long time, and they’ve become a part of my “look”—they also reflect my love of learning, and my personal culture. Choosing glasses also gave me a clever way of reflecting information visually in pie chart format.
  2. Ask you student to reflect on his/her values, interests, and skills. This could be through a card sort or brainstorm. Once they have their lists completed, have them pick their top three of each. Once their top three are picked, have them rank each one with its own graphic—each graphic will represent 10 percent. For example, creativity, autonomy, and security equal 100 percent of my top values, I used a ladder graphic to represent 10 percent increments, so my values are sorted 50 percent creativity, 30 percent  autonomy, and 20 percent security (equaling 100 percent).
  3. Facilitate a discussion about other things your student would like to have as a part of his/her career—e.g., consider topics such as amount of time with people versus things, time spent in and out of the office. Your student can use his/her personal symbol in creative ways to reflect this information. For example, I used the lenses of my glasses as a very basic pie chart.

What I like about this activity is that it has several applications. It can be used to assess current values, interests, and skills, and bring to light how a student views her/his identity. Doing it multiple times, over four years (or each semester), allows you and your student to see how things have evolved and bring to light great opportunities to discuss why things have changed or what prompted the change. Finally, I think it would be interesting if a parent, friend, or manager/supervisor created an infographic for their students, and then the two—student and other person—compared what they created and discussed. Does the internship supervisor see the same skills and interests as her/his student? Does the on-campus job manager choose an identity symbol close to what their supervisee chose…or are they totally different? Think of all the interesting conversations that could come from this activity about values, skill, interests, self-marketing, and professional identity!

What ideas have you been using with students? Please share them with me and other blog readers in the comments section below.

Help Your Students Find Their “Calling”

Andres TraslavinaAndres Traslavina, director of Global Recruiting, Whole Foods Market
Twitter: @traslavina
LinkedIn: http:www.linkedin.com/in/traslavina

 

There are fundamental differences between a job and a calling. From the moment students are looking initially for a position to finally accepting an offer, there are creative ways to help them find a sense of purpose in what they will do. Considering the amount of time they will spend working, aiming for a calling may provide them with the best path to happiness.

Key Points:

  • Help students spend time identifying their unique attributes. Look for employers and positions that allow students to work on activities that will make them feel “in the flow.”
  • Collaborate with your study abroad office to help students broaden their horizons by gaining new experiences, such as traveling the world and spending time working with communities and people from different backgrounds.
  • Direct students to look for positions with descriptions that sound more like creative invitations to join a company, and invite employers to your campus that clearly outline their mission, vision and values.
  • Inspire students to become a part of something larger than themselves.

After spending five years interviewing and working with senior leaders, I found that many executives take several years understanding their personal mission and aligning that with their true calling. For some, that moment never arrives. Maintaining a job without purpose leads to poor decision-making and challenges related to relationships and health.

  • People who perceive their work as a job are motivated by the paycheck. They look forward to Fridays and vacations.
  • People who perceive their work as a career are more motivated by salary gains and the prestige involved with career advancement. They look forward to the next promotion.
  • People who perceive their work as a calling are motivated by the tasks and goals themselves. They mirror who they are, and are aligned with their personal values and interests. Their expectation is to make the world a better place and they look forward to more work.

I have personally been on the search for a calling for awhile, and now I am convinced that this is a life-long process. Realistically, some people may have to transition or take smaller steps to identify their true calling starting with a one-dimensional job followed by a career. Fortunately I feel Whole Foods Market has been the channel I needed to do what I love, with people I want around me, as part of something much bigger than myself, and where I can continue to help others find their true calling.

If your students are fortunate enough to land a calling right after graduation, or decide to open their own enterprise, congratulations! But for the majority, the least we can do is to encourage them to keep searching for meaningful work and not just settle for a job.

You can provide insightful advice to students using the following key points about searching for a calling:

  1. Spend time identifying your strengths. Scientifically validated assessments are the best way to understand your strengths by comparing yours to those of top performers. When I work with candidates seeking career advice, I suggest to them to start by asking themselves the following question: What activities are those which make you feel “in the flow”? This concept was introduced by Mihaly Csikszentmihalyi. It happens when your use your talents, skills, and abilities to push yourself to work through a challenge that you can handle well, so when you are in flow you feel in synch while learning and perhaps discovering new talents.
  1. Travel the world. There is no better learning tool than the world itself. By going out of your comfort zone, you may find environments, people, and places where you gain insight about yourself and truly determine your strengths and joys. Consider factors such as weather, population, lifestyle, activities, etc. By traveling you may find your dream place and you should start working toward moving there or to a city similar in qualities. For some careers, this may be more restrictive,  however, the world is a big place and if you open your search criteria you may be pleasantly surprised.
  1. Be selective when seeking work. Look for position descriptions that sound more like creative invitations and have the potential to match your calling. Understanding a company’s mission, vision, and core values is essential to determine the right fit for you.
  1. And finally, look for opportunities to join organizations that allow you to become part of something bigger than yourself. Find informal moments to learn, teach, and help others, which will identify activities that match your calling. Getting involved in volunteer committees, social groups, and charitable causes are also some ways in which you could start transforming your job into a calling.

Thank you for reading. I have noticed that this blog has limited participation from the audience, and one of my goals is to help you get your thoughts out in front of relevant networks. Please feel free to share your response to one or all of the below questions. Your participation is what makes our discussions meaningful. Your comments will inspire others to learn from best practices.

  1. What are the moments within the career development function that allow you to experience “flow”?
  2. In what other ways you have helped students find a calling?
  3. As career services professionals, what can we do to do more of the things we love and enjoy?